Sie sind hier: Startseite Abteilungen Paläontologie Arbeitsgruppen Paläobotanik AG Gee PD Dr. Carole Gee

PD Dr. Carole Gee

Carole headshot 2

Contact information

Nußallee 8
Paläontologie, Raum 0.001
Telefon: ++49 (0) 228 73 3063
Fax.: ++49 (0) 228 73 3509
E-Mail: cgee[at]uni-bonn.de

Major academic positions

  • Currently: Privatdozentin (Associate Professor) in Paleontology, Teaching and Research Faculty of Geosciences and OEP Biology, University of Bonn, Germany
  • Since 2020: Research Associate, Huntington Botanical Garden, San Marino, California, USA
  • Since 2019: Visiting Research Associate, State Key Laboratory, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
  • 2016: Privatdozentin, University of Bonn
  • 2015: Habilitation in Paleontology, University of Bonn
  • 2013–2014: Visiting Scientist at the Huntington Botanical Gardens and at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, California, USA
  • 2010–2012: Interim Head of the Goldfuss Museum and paleontological collections, University of Bonn, Germany
  • 2009–currently: Teaching Faculty, University of Bonn, in Paleontology and OEP Biology
  • 1990–currently: Research Faculty, Paleontology, University of Bonn, Germany
  • 1987–1990: Postdoctoral Scientist in Paleopalynology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH-Zürich)
  • 1987: Ph.D. in Botany, Specialization in Paleobotany
  • 1985–1986: Fulbright Scholar to Sweden
  • 1981: B.A. in Biology, Concentration in Botany, Pomona College, California, USA

Research interests

Approach: Fossil plants as living organisms in deep time — morphology, anatomy, biological affinity, ecology, fossilization

  • Mesozoic paleobotany
  • The conifer Araucaria, past and present
  • Conifer seed cone architecture
  • Jurassic and Tertiary woods
  • Eocene Nypa mangroves
  • Tertiary fruits and seeds of the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany
  • Fossil water lilies
  • Actuopaleobotany of recent carpological deposits
  • Fossilization of plants, especially the wood silicification and the preservation of leaf compressions
  • Where molecular biology meets paleobotany
 

Editorial boards of scientific journals

  • Starting 2022: Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, Springer Verlag
  • Starting 2023: Applications in Plant Sciences, Botanical Society of America, John Wiley & Sons

 

Paleontological consultancies

  • 2019–2021: Reimagining La Brea Tar Pits, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, California, for the Weiss/Manfredi architectural firm in NYC, USA
  • 2019–2021: Gross, Grösser, Dinosaurier, a special exhibit at  Museum Koenig, Bonn, Germany
  • 2013–2014: Dinosaur Plants Tour for the Huntington Botanical Gardens, San Marino, California, USA; see https://www.huntington.org/grid-detail/dinosaur-plants-tour

Selected publications (since 2008)

Edited books and special issues

  • Gee, C. T., and L. Kunzmann (eds.). 2012. Special issue on plant taphonomy commenorating the 20th anniversary of the International Workshop on Plant Taphonomy. Palaios, 27 (11): 753-841.
  • Klein, N., K. Remes, C. T. Gee, and P. M. Sander (eds.). 2011. Biology of the Sauropod Dinosaurs: Understanding the Life of Giants. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 331 pp.
  • Wappler, T., and C. T. Gee (eds.). 2010. Plant-Insect Interactions in Deep Time. Special issue in Palaeontographica Abt. B, 283: 99-182.
  • C. T. Gee (ed.). 2010. Plants in Mesozoic Time: Morphological Innovations, Phylogeny, Ecosystems (Ted Delevoryas festschrift). Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 373 pp.

Peer-reviewed research papers

  • Xie, A., N. Tian, and C. T. Gee.  Revised MS submitted. Ancient Basidiomycota in an extinct conifer-like tree, Xenoxylon utahense, and a brief survey of fungi in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of USA. Journal of Paleontology, revised manuscript submitted in October 2022.
  • Shunn, K. C., and C. T. Gee. In revision. Cross sectioning to the core of conifers: pith anatomy of living Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae, and a review of fossil conifer pith. IAWA Journal, in revision since November 2022.
  • Lönartz, M., V. E. McCoy, C. T. Gee, and T. Geisler. In press. Paleoenvironmental conditions for the natural vulcanization of the Eocene “monkeyhair” laticifers from Geiseltal, Germany, as elucidated by Ram spectroscopy. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, in press since November 2022.
  • Gee, C. T., D. W. Taylor, and W. C. Rember. 2022. First water lily, a leaf of Nymphaea sp., from the Miocene Clarkia Flora, northern Idaho, USA: Occurrence, taphonomic observations, floristic implications. Fossil Imprint, 78: 288–297. http://fi.nm.cz/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/11_Gee.pdf
  • Decker, V., C. T. Gee, P. J. Schucht, S. Lindauer, and G. Hoffmann. 2022. Life on the edge: Powerful tsunami overwhelmed Indian Ocean mangroves one millennium ago. Forests, 13: 922. https://doi.org/10.3390/f13060922.
  • McCoy, V. E., C. T. Gee, J. M. Michalski, and O. Wings. 2022. Oldest fossil evidence of latex sabotaging behavior by herbivorous insects. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 300: 104631. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2022.104631.
  • Gee, C. T., A. Xie, and J. Zajonz. 2022. Multitrophic plant–insect–fungi interactions across 150 million years: A giant Agathoxylon tree, ancient wood-boring beetles and fungi from the Morrison Formation of NE Utah, and the brood of an extant orchard mason bee.  Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 300: 104627. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2022.104627.
  • Janssen, K., S. L. Low, Y. Wang, Q.-Y. Mu, G. Bierbaum, and C. T. Gee. 2021. Dissecting biofilm diversity on water lily leaves through 16S rRNA amplicon analysis: Comparison of four DNA extraction kits.  Applications in Plant Sciences: e11444. https://doi.org/10.1002/aps3.11444.

  • Xie, A., C. T. Gee, M.B. Bennis, D. Gray, and D. A. Sprinkel.  2021. A more southerly occurrence of Xenoxylon in North America: X . utahense Xie et Gee sp . nov . from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in Utah, USA, and its paleobiogeographic and paleoclimatic significance. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology: 104451.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2021.104451.
  • Sander, P. M., and C. T. Gee. 2021. Chapter 1. Introduction to the limits of the fossil record, pp. 1–15. In C. T. Gee, V. E. McCoy, and P. M. Sander, eds. Fossilization: Understanding the Material Nature of Ancient Plants and Animals. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 274 pp.

  • Gee, C. T., and M. Liesegang. 2021. Chapter 6. Experimental silicification of wood in the lab and field: Pivotal studies and open questions, pp. 139–158. In C. T. Gee, V.E. McCoy, and P.M. Sander, eds. Fossilization: Understanding the Material Nature of Ancient Plants and Animals. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 274 pp.
  • Gee, C. T., and V. E. McCoy. 2021. Chapter 9. Color in living and fossil plants: The search for biological pigments in the paleobotanical record, pp. 221–248. In C. T. Gee, V. E. McCoy, and P. M. Sander, eds. Fossilization: Understanding the Material Nature of Ancient Plants and Animals. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 274 pp.
  • McCoy, V. E., A. Boom, O. Wings, T. Wappler, C. C. Labandeira, and C. T. Gee.  2021.  Fossilization of the Eocene "monkeyhair" laticifer tree from Geiseltal, Germany: A deeper understanding using micro-CT and pyrolysis GC/MS.  Palaios, 36: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2020.052.
  • Li, Y., Y.-M. Cui, C. T. Gee, X.-Q. Liang, and C.-S. Li.  2020.  Primotrapa gen. nov., an extinct transitional genus bridging the evolutionary gap between Lythraceae and Trapoideae, from the early Miocene of North China.  BMC Evolutionary Biology, 20: 150. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01697-2.
  • Gee, C. T.  2020.  Introduction, pp. 159–160.  Section 6.1 in C. T. Gee (chapter editor and coordinator), Unit 6, Postcards from the Mesozoic: Forest landscapes with giant flowering trees, enigmatic seed ferns, and other naked-seed plants, pp. 159–160.  In: E. Martinetto, E. Tschanz, and R. A. Gastaldo (eds.), Nature through Time: Virtual Field Trips Through the Nature of the Past.  Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 462 pp.
  • Gee, C. T.  2020.  Where have all the flowers gone? The global changeover in vegetation during the Cretaceous, from variations of greens and browns to bright flowery colors, pp.  Section 6.3 in C. T. Gee (chapter editor and coordinator), Unit 6, Postcards from the Mesozoic: Forest landscapes with giant flowering trees, enigmatic seed ferns, and other naked-seed plants, pp. 162–163.  In: E. Martinetto, E. Tschanz, and R. A. Gastaldo (eds.), Nature through Time: Virtual Field Trips Through the Nature of the Past.  Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 462 pp.

  • Gee, C. T.  2020.  The conifer forests of the “Jurassic Park” in western North America, pp. 165–169.  Section 6.5 in C. T. Gee (chapter editor and coordinator), Unit 6, Postcards from the Mesozoic: Forest landscapes with giant flowering trees, enigmatic seed ferns, and other naked-seed plants. In: E. Martinetto, E. Tschanz, and R. A. Gastaldo (eds.), Nature through Time: Virtual Field Trips Through the Nature of the Past.  Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 462 pp.

  • Gee, C. T., and  J. H. A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert.  2020.  The classic Mesozoic forest of ferns and gymnosperms from the Middle Jurassic of Yorkshire, England, pp. 169–172.  Section 6.6 in C. T. Gee (chapter editor and coordinator), Unit 6, Postcards from the Mesozoic: Forest landscapes with giant flowering trees, enigmatic seed ferns, and other naked-seed plants. In: E. Martinetto, E. Tschanz, and R. A. Gastaldo (eds.), Nature through Time: Virtual Field Trips Through the Nature of the Past.  Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 462 pp.

  • Ash, S. R., and C. T. Gee.  2020.  The colorful and iconic Late Triassic Petrified Forest  of Arizona, USA, pp. 172–178.  Section 6.7 in C.T. Gee (chapter editor and coordinator), Unit 6, Postcards from the Mesozoic: Forest landscapes with giant flowering trees, enigmatic seed ferns, and other naked-seed plants. In: E. Martinetto, E. Tschanz, and R. A. Gastaldo (eds.), Nature through Time: Virtual Field Trips Through the Nature of the Past.  Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 462 pp.

  • Liesegang, M., and C. T. Gee.  2020.  Silica entry and accumulation in standing trees in a hot-springs environment: Cellular pathways, rapid pace, and fossilisation potential.  Palaeontology, 63: 651–660. https://doi.org/10.111/pala.12480.

  • Gee, C. T., D. A. Sprinkel, M. B. Bennis-Bottomley, and D. A. Gray.  2019.  Silicified logs of Agathoxylon hoodii (Tidwell et Medlyn) comb. nov. from Rainbow Draw, near Dinosaur National Monument, Uintah County, Utah, USA, and their implications for araucariaceaeous conifer forests in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation.  Geology of Intermountain West, 6: 77–92. https://giw.utahgeology.org/giw/index.php/GIW/article/view/41/62.
  • Sprinkel, D. A., M. B. Bennis, D. E. Gray, and C. T. Gee.  2019.  Stratigraphic setting of Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) permineralized wood sites near Dinosaur National Monument, Uintah County, Utah.  Geology of Intermountain West, 6: 61–76, A1–A5.  https://doi.org/10.31711/giw.v6i0.36.
  • Gee, C. T., and D. W. Taylor.  2019.  An extinct transitional leaf genus of Nymphaeaceae from the Eocene lake at Messel, Germany: Nuphaea engelhardtii Gee et David W. Taylor gen. et sp. nov.  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 180: 724–736.  doi: 10.1086/704376.
  • Gee, C. T., P. M. Sander, S. E. Peters, M. T. El-Hennawy, M. S. M. Antar, I. S. Zalmout, and P. D. Gingerich.  2019.  Fossil burrow assemblage, not mangrove roots: Reinterpretation of the main whale-bearing layer in the late Eocene of Wadi Al-Hitan, Egypt.  Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 99: 143–158.  Published online in August 2018,

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12549-018-0337-0.

  • Gee, C. T., and D. W. Taylor.  2016.  Aquatic macrophytes from the upper Oligocene fossillagerstätte of Rott (Rhineland, Germany). Part II: A new fossil leaf species of Nymphaea (subgenus Lotos), N. elisabethae GEE et DAVID W. TAYLOR sp. nov.  Paläontographica Abt. B, 295: 33-43. 

  • Hellawell, J., C. Ballhaus, C. T. Gee, G. E. Mustoe, T. J. Nagel, R. Wirth, J. Rethemeyer, F. Tomaschek, T. Geisler, K. Greef, and T. Mansfeldt.  2015.  Silicification of recent conifer wood at a Yellowstone hot spring.  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 149: 79-87.  Published online in Nov. 2014, available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2014.10.018.
  • Taylor, D. W., and C. T. Gee.  2014.  Phylogenetic analysis of fossil water lilies based on leaf architecture and vegetative characters: Testing phylogenetic hypotheses of molecular studies.  Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, 55: 89-110.
  • Gee, C. T., R. D. Dayvault, R. A. Stockey, and W. D. Tidwell.  2014.  Greater paleobiodiversity in conifer seed cones in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Utah, USA.  Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 94: 363-365.  Available online at doi: 10.1007/s12549-014-0160-1.
  • Gee, C. T.  2013.  Applying micro CT and 3D visualization to Jurassic silicified conifer seed cones: a virtual advantage over thin-sectioning.  Applications in Plant Sciences, 1: 1300039.  Available online at doi:10.3732/apps.1300039.
  • Läbe, S., C. T. Gee, C. Ballhaus, and T. Nagel.  2012.  Experimental silicification of the tree fern Dicksonia antarctica at high temperature with silica-enriched H₂O vapor.  Palaios, 27: 835-841. Available online at doi: 10.2110/palo.2012.p12-064r.
  • Ballhaus, C., C. T. Gee, C. Bockrath, K. Greef, T. Mansfeldt, and D. Rhede.  2012.  The silicification of trees in volcanic ash: an experimental study. Geochimica et Cosmoschimica Acta, 84: 62-74. Available online at doi: 10.2110/palo.2012.p12-064r.
  • Gee, C. T.  2011.  Dietary options for the sauropod dinosaurs from an integrated botanical and paleobotanical perspective.  In: N. Klein, K. Remes, C. T. Gee, and P. M. Sander (eds.), Biology of the Sauropod Dinosaurs: Understanding the Life of Giants.  Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 34-56.
  • Sander, P. M., A. Christian, M. Clauss, R. Fechner, C. T. Gee, E.-M. Griebeler, H.-C. Gunga, J. Hummel, H. Mallison, S. F. Perry, H. Preuschoft, O. W. M. Rauhut, K. Remes, T. Tütken, O. Wings, and U. Witzel.  2011.  Biology of the Sauropod Dinosaurs: The Evolution of Gigantism.  Biological Reviews, 86: 117–155.  Published online in April 2010.  Available online at doi: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.2010.00137.x.
  • Wappler, T., and C. T. Gee.  2010.  Plant-insect interactions in Deep Time: Contributions from the 8th International Organisation of Palaeobotany Conference in Bonn, Germany, August 30-September 5, 2008.  Palaeontographica Abt. B, 283: 99-101.
  • Sussex, I., N. Kerk, and C. T. Gee. 2010. Architectural innovation and developmental controls in some Mesozoic gymnosperms, Or why do the leaf crowns in Mesozoic forests look tufted? In: C.T. Gee (ed.), Plants in Mesozoic Time: Morphological Innovations, Phylogeny, Ecosystems (Ted Delevoryas festschrift). Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 5-12.
  • Gee, C. T., and W. D. Tidwell.  2010.  A mosaic of characters in a new whole-plant Araucaria, A. delevoryasii Gee sp. nov., from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A. In: C. T. Gee (ed.), Plants in Mesozoic Time: Morphological Innovations, Phylogeny, Ecosystems (Ted Delevoryas festschrift). Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 67-94.
  • Sander, P. M., C. T. Gee, J. Hummel, and M. Clauss.  2010.  Mesozoic plants and dinosaur herbivory. In: C. T. Gee (ed.), Plants in Mesozoic Time: Morphological Innovations, Phylogeny, Ecosystems (Ted Delevoryas festschrift).  Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 331-359.
  • Sander, P. M., A. Christian, and C. T. Gee. 2009. Response to: Sauropods kept their heads down. Science 323: 1671-1672.
  • Hummel, J., C. T. Gee, K.-H. Südekum, P. M. Sander, G. Nogge, and M. Clauss.  2008.  In vitro digestibility of fern and gymnosperm foliage: implications for sauropod feeding ecology and diet selection.  Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B, 275: 1015-1021.
Artikelaktionen